Category Archives: Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

December Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & conditioning, power and hypertrophy

  1. Is sprint running the best way to train to improve sprint ability?
  2. What sled loads are best for resisted sled sprint training?
  3. Can an in-season training program improve sprint ability in soccer players?
  4. How does concurrent training frequency affect a range of physical qualities?
  5. Does rest interval length affect the number of repetitions performed in supersets?
  6. How is aerobic capacity related to CrossFit workout performance?
  7. Does creatine enhance gains from plyometric training in female soccer players?
  8. Does altering training frequency by menstrual phases affect gains in untrained females?
  9. Does altering training frequency by menstrual phases affect gains in trained females?
  10. How does strength change across the menstrual cycle?
  11. Does training to failure lead to greater gains in strength than training not to failure?
  12. Are forced repetitions effective for muscular hypertrophy?


Biomechanics & motor control

  1. How should the term “power” be used in exercise science research?
  2. Is the force–velocity relationship linear in the bench press?
  3. Can we measure the PAP effect at multiple points in time post-conditioning contraction?
  4. What factors affect the PAP effect on jumping, sprinting, and throwing performances?
  5. How does a gluteal activation protocol affect sprint running performance?
  6. Which hip abduction and external rotation exercises produce the highest gluteal EMG activity?
  7. How does knowledge of load affect RFD and power output?
  8. How do joint angle movements differ between jump and drop landings?
  9. How does EMG activity of shoulder, trunk, and arm muscles differ between push-up variants?
  10. How do peripheral and central fatigue contribute to repeated cycling sprints?


Anatomy, physiology & nutrition

  1. Is whey protein effective for increasing lean body mass in resistance-trained individuals?
  2. Are there benefits of a higher protein diet (3.4g per kg of bodyweight)?
  3. Does higher protein intake conserve lean body mass in older adults during weight loss?
  4. Does protein supplementation affect intramuscular anabolic signaling?
  5. Are low-fat or low-carb diets best for overweight and obese adults?
  6. Do ketogenic diets lead to losses in lean body mass?
  7. Do macros affect metabolic adaptions during weight loss?
  8. Can catching up on sleep help reduce the adverse effects of sleep restriction?
  9. Does sleep restriction lead to increased energy intake?
  10. Can melatonin supplementation improve body composition?
  11. Do changes in myonuclear domain size occur during resistance training?
  12. Is HIIT better than steady state exercise for fat loss?
  13. Is HIIT better than steady state exercise for brain health?
  14. Is HIIT better than steady state exercise for appetite regulation?
  15. Do food- and exercise-induced energy deficits produce the same compensatory energy intake?


Physical therapy & rehabilitation

  1. Does cold water immersion help adolescent athletes recover?
  2. Does cold water immersion speed HRV recovery post-exercise?
  3. Does foam rolling work by altering stretch tolerance?
  4. Can foam rolling added to a stretching program improve gains in flexibility?
  5. Does bodyweight affect eccentric knee flexor strength in the Nordic hamstring curl?
  6. Should tendon rehabilitation involve interventions to improve motor control?
  7. Is there evidence for central sensitization in tendinopathy?
  8. Can visual feedback during drop landing training reduce knee valgus?
  9. Does contracting the pelvic floor muscles affect active lung capacity?
  10. Can pelvic floor muscle training improve active lung capacity?
  11. Can strength exercises added to a stretching program help treat plantar fasciitis?
  12. Does stretching one joint improve flexibility at other joints?
  13. Does greater foot pronation lead to more anterior pelvic tilt?


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November Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Which improves sprinting performance more – vertical or horizontal jumps?
  2. Which improves sprinting performance more – plyometrics or resistance training?
  3. Can a short-distance, heavy sled tow improve sprint running performance after 12 minutes?
  4. Can repeated maximal power training improve repeated sprint ability?
  5. What is jumping interval training and can it improve rate of force development?
  6. Can functional HIIT simultaneously increase strength and fitness?
  7. Which improves sprinting performance more – horizontal or vertical power training?
  8. Does adding elastic bands to free weights improve strength gains?
  9. Can pneumatic bench press training improve free weight bench press 1RM?
  10. Is the leg press as good as the back squat for increasing jumping ability?
  11. Which improves squat 1RM most – block or weekly undulating periodization?
  12. Do drop sets produce better results than one set to failure?
  13. How does kettlebell HIIT compare with sprint interval cycling?
  14. What is the best warm up for different sports?


Biomechanics & motor control

  1. Is the force-velocity relationship linear during loaded jumping?
  2. Does the force-velocity relationship differ across groups of elite athletes?
  3. How should jump squats and push jerks be programmed to improve jumping ability?
  4. How do compression shorts affect vertical jump ability?
  5. How do coaching instructions affect drop jump biomechanics?
  6. Do the medial and lateral hamstrings display different muscle activity during sprinting?
  7. How long do increases in hamstring muscle fascicle length caused by eccentric training last?
  8. How fast are the first and second pull phases of the snatch in Olympic weightlifters?
  9. Does a pronated grip lead to more back muscle activity during an inverted row?
  10. Does the thickness of the push up bar affect shoulder muscle activity?
  11. Does using a TRX or wobble board for push ups affect shoulder muscle activity?
  12. Does hanging kettlebells on the barbell in the bench press increase muscle activity?
  13. How does lumbar extension angle affect hamstrings muscle activity?
  14. Are muscle strength and size related to eccentric leg stiffness during jump landings?


Anatomy, physiology & nutrition

  1. Which is best for weight loss – diet, exercise, or diet plus exercise?
  2. Does caloric restriction make muscles more efficient?
  3. Does insulin affect muscle protein synthesis or breakdown?
  4. Impaired insulin action in the human brain: causes and metabolic consequences
  5. Does taking steroids increase your risk of a ruptured tendon?
  6. Did endurance running really cause unique gluteus maximus development in humans?
  7. Does peripheral fatigue cause reductions in voluntary activation?
  8. How can we measure parasympathetic activity levels in athletes?
  9. Can your parasympathetic activity levels predict how much you gain from doing HIIT?
  10. Can cold water immersion cause faster parasympathetic reactivation after Rugby matches?


Physical therapy & rehabilitation

  1. Can the FMS predict injury in active populations?
  2. Can the FMS tests identify the presence of absence of dynamic stability?
  3. Can foam rolling the hip flexors improve hip and knee flexibility?
  4. Can foam rolling reduce pain in the tender spots in calf muscles?
  5. Do people with cam femoroacetabular impingement squat differently?
  6. Which type of lunge is best for the hip muscles and which is best for the knee muscles?
  7. What is the best way to improve the single-leg squat movement pattern?
  8. Is poor ankle dorsiflexion related to hip adduction and internal rotation in a step down test?
  9. How do physiotherapists rehabilitate patellar tendinopathy in practice?
  10. Which is better for improving scapulohumeral rhythm – the full-can or empty-can exercise?
  11. What speed maximizes the VMO to VL ratio during the wall squat?
  12. What hip rotation position maximizes gluteus medius muscle activity in the pelvic drop exercise?


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October Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Are high volumes and low loads better than low volumes and high loads for increasing muscle strength and size in resistance‐trained males?
  2. Are heavy loads better than light loads for increasing muscular strength and size in the elderly?
  3. Do training frequency and the level of supervision affect gains in strength?
  4. Is variable resistance better than constant loads for increasing muscular strength and size?
  5. Does order within daily undulating periodization programs affect strength gains in powerlifters?
  6. How does rest period affect repetition performance in single and multi-joint exercises?
  7. How does occlusion pressure affect strength and size gains in blood flow restriction training?
  8. Does rate of recovery differ between strength and power workouts in track and field athletes?
  9. How do strength and power change in rugby union players over the course of a season?
  10. How far and how fast do elite soccer players sprint in a game?
  11. By how much do 1RM pull up and dip need to improve for the change to be real?
  12. Does a low-load gluteal warm-up improve jump height and RFD?
  13. How much endurance running interferes with gains in back squat 1RM and jump height?
  14. Do strength gains occur differently in dominant and non-dominant legs?
  15. Does unilateral strength training improve strength differently from bilateral strength training?

Glute Activation

Biomechanics & motor control

  1. How does adding bands affect muscle activity during free weight back squats?
  2. How does footwear affect joint angle movements during barbell back squats?
  3. How do indicators of fatigue differ after different resistance training protocols?
  4. How does load affect rate of force development (RFD) during sled towing sprints?
  5. How does harness attachment point affect horizontal force production during sled towing?
  6. Do different running speeds require different contributions from each of the lower body joints?
  7. Why are trained sprinters faster in competition than in training?
  8. What is the key factor that differentiates between elite and sub-elite sprint running ability?
  9. Can eccentric leg press exercise potentiate subsequent counter-movement jump performance?
  10. Can unweighted lunges potentiate subsequent counter-movement jump performance?
  11. How does the set number affect power output at different loads?
  12. Does training with the optimal load for power lead to the greatest long-term gains in power?
  13. How does hip rotation ROM affect shoulder external rotation torque during pitching?
  14. What predicts jumping, sprinting and throwing performance in power-trained athletes?


Anatomy, physiology & nutrition

  1. How are body fat and fat oxidation affected by short-term low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets?
  2. Is more lean mass lost during ketogenic diets than during higher carbohydrate diets?
  3. Does myostatin function differently in males and females?
  4. Does myostatin dysfunction reduce gains in specific tension following mechanical loading?
  5. How much does muscle swelling explain early training-induced increases in hypertrophy?
  6. How do we measure muscle protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy?
  7. Does a healthy diet aid gains in muscle mass during resistance training in elderly women?
  8. How do protein dosage, timing, quality and co-ingestion with carbohydrate affect muscle protein synthesis?
  9. Does caffeine cause dehydration both at rest and during exercise?


Physical therapy & rehabilitation

  1. What causes endurance running injuries?
  2. How do the scapular movements of wide- and shoulder -width pull-up variations differ?
  3. How do different exercises affect gains in peak torque at different knee flexion angles?
  4. Is the angle of peak knee flexion torque a marker of hamstring injury risk?
  5. Can MRI improve prediction of return to sport after acute hamstring injuries?
  6. Can a neurodynamic sliding technique alter erector spinae muscle activity during hip extension?
  7. How can blood flow restriction be used in a progressive injury rehabilitation model?
  8. Is cold or heat application post-exercise better for reducing muscle soreness?
  9. Can hip-focused exercise programs help reduce knee valgus?
  10. Do movement patterns differ between single- and two-leg landings and squats?
  11. Can chronic recurrent osteitis pubis be managed conservatively in soccer players?
  12. How good is the evidence that non-operative rehabilitation works for osteitis pubis in athletes?




September Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

Hi fitness folks! Do you know the answer to the September S&C research review questions? If not, you ought to subscribe to our research review service. To subscribe, just click on the button below and follow the instructions…


Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Is block periodization best for strength—power training in track and field?
  2. What factors are important when using block periodization in track and field?
  3. What field tests are associated with track and field ability?
  4. Can eccentric training enhance strength and flexibility in national-level track sprinters?
  5. Does sled towing improve sprint running speed in youths of all ages?
  6. Do anabolic signaling responses differ between high-volume and high-load workouts?
  7. Is high-volume resistance training better for increasing strength and size?
  8. Do cluster sets allow greater volume loads to be performed?
  9. Does variable resistance training increase strength and size more than constant load training?
  10. Can manual resistance increase strength as much as conventional resistance training?
  11. Does plyometric training improve soccer-specific performance in youth soccer athletes?
  12. Does plyometric training change muscle fiber type?
  13. Do resistance training and plyometrics improve sprint running ability in youth soccer athletes?
  14. What determines pull up performance in trained athletes?
  15. Does post-exercise cold water immersion impair muscular adaptations to resistance training?


Biomechanics & Motor control

  1. Do both pushing more and braking less improve accelerating sprint performance?
  2. Is the hip thrust a better exercise for the gluteus maximus than the back squat?
  3. How does squat variation affect lower body muscle activity?
  4. Does resistance training change the spatial distribution of muscle activity?
  5. How does muscle activity change with relative load during the knee extension?
  6. How does muscle activity change with relative load during the back squat?
  7. Which manual strength testing positions are best for the 3 portions of the gluteus medius?
  8. Are measures of lower body muscle size and 1RM power clean related?
  9. Are maximum isometric strength and vertical jump height related?
  10. How does spine movement differ when the overhead press is performed in front of the head or behind the head?
  11. Is the repeated bout effect exercise-specific?
  12. Does extracellular matrix remodeling contribute to the repeated bout effect?
  13. Can changes in motor neuron excitability explain the post-activation potentiation effect?


Anatomy, Physiology & Nutrition

  1. Do long-term measures of muscle protein synthesis correlate with gains in muscle size?
  2. Does muscle hypertrophy caused by myostatin inhibition accelerate degeneration?
  3. Is higher protein intake associated with greater muscle mass?
  4. Can diary protein intake increase reductions in fat mass during resistance training?
  5. Does leucine affect anabolic signaling differently from the other essential amino acids?
  6. Can plant-based protein support muscle growth?
  7. What causes the loss of strength relative to muscle size in the elderly?
  8. Does melatonin work for primary sleep disorders?
  9. How do contraceptives affect hormone responses to training sessions in elite athletes?
  10. What are the metabolic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners?
  11. Do resting metabolic rate and lean mass drive energy intake?
  12. Are reduced inhibitory control and increased trait impulsivity key features of obesity?
  13. Is sedentary time associated with visceral fat deposits?


Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation

  1. What causes exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis?
  2. Can gluteus maximus inhibition occur in cases of proximal hamstring tendinopathy?
  3. Do both tendon stiffness and muscle activity change in Achilles tendinopathy?
  4. Is hip muscle exercise more effective than knee muscle exercise for patellofemoral pain?
  5. Is there a difference in pelvic floor muscle activity across the phases of the menstrual cycle?
  6. Is pelvic floor muscle contraction associated with and diaphragmatic motion when breathing?
  7. Do individuals with uncontrolled lumbopelvic rotation activate the psoas major to a lesser extent?
  8. Can the “doming of the diaphragm” technique increase flexibility?
  9. Does PNF stretching cause larger changes in stretch tolerance than static stretching?