Category Archives: Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

May Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Are single-joint exercises necessary for maximizing strength and size in trained individuals?
  2. Are heavy loads better than light loads for strength and size in trained individuals?
  3. Is repetition failure necessary for increasing strength and size?
  4. Which type of periodization is better: block or weekly undulating?
  5. Is variable or constant-load resistance better for strength and size gains?
  6. How can tapers be best structured to maximize muscular strength?
  7. How does crunch exercise frequency affect abdominal muscle endurance?
  8. Is isometric or dynamic training better for improving core stiffness?
  9. How does inter-set antagonist static stretching affect number of reps performed?
  10. Does limited hamstring flexibility affect athletic ability?
  11. Which is better for pre-season soccer training: half squats or jump squats?
  12. What is the optimum jump squat velocity for strength and speed gains?
  13. Can sport-specific training increase throwing velocity in throwing athletes?
  14. Is peripheral heart action training a viable alternative to HIIT?


Biomechanics & motor control

  1. Which muscles drive track sprinters out of the blocks?
  2. What physical performance tests are closely related to 100m track sprint performance?
  3. Why is the biceps femoris muscle most commonly injured?
  4. How do knee wraps affect the contribution of different muscles to the back squat?
  5. Which joints require greater flexibility in order to increase squat depth?
  6. How does instability affect the contribution of different muscles to the back squat?
  7. Does isometric training at different muscle lengths lead to differences in strength gains?
  8. Does regional hypertrophy differ with difference in relative load?
  9. How does bench angle alter upper body muscle activity during the bench press?
  10. Are there differences in the EMG-force relationship between trained and untrained males?
  11. Do single-joint exercises take longer to recover from than multi-joint exercises?
  12. Do cues affect drop jump performance?
  13. Do weightlifters and short-track speed skaters jump in different ways?
  14. Can muscle fascicle length changes explain differences in DOMS?


Anatomy, Physiology & Nutrition

  1. Can extracellular matrix remodeling explain differences in DOMS?
  2. How important are central mechanisms for recovery?
  3. Does mental fatigue affect maximal anaerobic exercise performance?
  4. Is a high-protein or a moderate-protein diet better during dieting for trained individuals?
  5. Does endurance training affect peak fat oxidation irrespective of weight loss?
  6. Can neuromuscular electrical stimulation improve recovery?
  7. Is HIIT better than moderate exercise for improving vascular function?
  8. Does post-exercise cold application reduce adaptations to training?


Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation

  1. Can the Nordic hamstring exercise reduce hamstring injuries?
  2. Is low eccentric hamstring strength a risk factor for hamstring injuries?
  3. Is neurodynamic sliding better than stretching for improving hamstring flexibility?
  4. Is low-frequency electrical stimulation beneficial for improving hamstring flexibility?
  5. Are neural sliders and neural tensioners beneficial for improving hamstring flexibility?
  6. Are Achilles tendons back to normal, 2 years after surgical repair?
  7. How do tendons adapt in response to mechanical loading?
  8. What interventions can be used to prevent tendinopathy?
  9. Can core stability training alter landing movement patterns?
  10. Can core strength training improve chronic low back pain?
  11. Can movement-specific exercise alter movement patterns?
  12. How can physical therapy best reduce central sensitization pain in osteoarthritis?
  13. Is talocrural joint mobilization useful for improving ankle dorsiflexion?
  14. Could loss of range of motion of the hip joint be causing sports hernia?


April Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Can adding one set of low-load exercise to a standard workout increase hypertrophy?
  2. Can low-volume resistance training protect against DOMS from subsequent high-volume training?
  3. Does BFR training enhance gains from low-load resistance training?
  4. What are the metabolic, neuromuscular and hormonal effects of BFR training?
  5. Do all elderly people gain either strength or size from resistance training?
  6. Do oral contraceptives affect recovery from eccentric resistance training?
  7. Does eccentric resistance training enhance rate of force development?
  8. How does resistance training frequency affect gains in strength and size?
  9. How does resistance training frequency affect gains in strength and musculoskeletal pain?
  10. Does relative load affect acute post-workout changes in MHC isoform mRNA expression?
  11. Does bar speed affect changes in satellite cell content and myonuclear domain size?
  12. What is the rationale for including weightlifting pulling derivatives for athletes?


Biomechanics & Motor Control

  1. Are supine bridge curls an effective hamstrings exercise?
  2. Do muscle activation and posture each alter erector spinae fiber orientation?
  3. Does an abdominal drawing-in maneuver in prone hip extension alter gluteus maximus EMG activity?
  4. Is muscular co-activation key for punching performance?
  5. Does sodium bicarbonate affect voluntary activation during blood flow restriction?
  6. How does countermovement depth affect maximum vertical jump height?
  7. Do strength and body composition predict agility performance in female basketball athletes?
  8. What anthropometric profile identifies successful powerlifters?


Anatomy, Physiology & Nutrition

  1. How do muscle protein synthesis rates differ between trained and untrained subjects?
  2. What is the relationship between the acute muscle protein synthesis rates and hypertrophy?
  3. Can we conclude on the relationship between acute muscle protein synthetic response and changes in muscle mass?
  4. Can resistance training restore reductions in muscle protein synthesis when dieting?
  5. Are post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates associated with mTOR signaling?
  6. Does alcohol consumption reduce muscle protein synthesis?
  7. What mediates intracellular amino acids signaling to mTORC1 activity?
  8. What is the muscle fiber type of a champion sprint runner?
  9. Is there a causal relationship between physical activity and glucose homeostasis?
  10. Does pre-exercise caffeine dose increase post-exercise energy expenditure?
  11. How common are performance-enhancing substances in sports?
  12. Why do athletes choose to use performance-enhancing substances?
  13. How much protein do obese older adults need during periods of weight loss?
  14. Is resistance training beneficial for treating obesity-related health issues?
  15. How are different bones optimized for loading?


Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation

  1. Can self-myofascial release increase flexibility of the lower extremity?
  2. Can foam rolling improve flexibility during a dynamic lunge?
  3. Should we reject the theory of myofascial trigger points?
  4. Should we reject the review asking whether we should reject the theory of myofascial trigger points?
  5. Should we call myofascial trigger points “soft tissue sore spots of an unknown origin”?
  6. Can FMS sum score predict injury risk in college athletes?
  7. Is FMS sum score associated with previous injury in a very large sample of adolescents?
  8. Is FMS sum score associated with athletic performance in elite young soccer players?
  9. Is the FMS sum score associated with risky movement behavior?
  10. Can exercise interventions prevent groin injuries in sports?
  11. What are the risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes?
  12. Does asymmetry in lower body force production occur after hamstring injury?
  13. Is hip extension ROM reduced in individuals with chronic low back pain?
  14. Are specific exercise programs better than general exercise for low back pain?
  15. Is physiotherapy better than general exercise for low back pain?

foam roll

March Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. How long does it take to recover from a resistance-training workout?
  2. How does resistance-training frequency affect strength gains?
  3. Which type of resistance-training periodization is best for rugby players?
  4. How does bar speed (repetition duration) in resistance training affect hypertrophy?
  5. Is BFR superior to standard resistance-training when taken to similar levels of fatigue?
  6. Can plyometrics produce a postactivation potentiation effect for sprint running?
  7. How can postactivation potentiation be used for training rugby players?
  8. Does maximum isometric mid-thigh pull strength predict jumping ability?
  9. Is long-term training using postactivation potentiation techniques effective?
  10. Are vertical and horizontal jumping ability predictive of 100m sprint running times?
  11. Can plyometric training improve neural drive?
  12. Can plyometric training improve sprint running and jumping ability in track athletes?
  13. How do strength coaches incorporate strongman implements into programs?

broad jump

Biomechanics & motor control

  1. How does the lift phase of the farmers walk differ from the deadlift?
  2. How does relative load affect patellofemoral loads in the back squat?
  3. How does muscle activity differ between front and back squats?
  4. How strongly is horizontal force correlated with performance in world-class sprinters?
  5. What factors affect iliotibial band hardness?
  6. Is the postactivation potentiation effect caused by increased neural drive?
  7. How do acromiohumeral distance and scapular position change with fatigue?
  8. Do the gluteus medius and minimus activity have very different functions?
  9. How does hip joint position affect muscle activity in the prone hip extension in knee flexion?
  10. How does relative load affect muscle activity during the deadlift?
  11. Is the glute machine effective for training the gluteus maximus?

farmer carry

Anatomy, physiology & nutrition

  1. Can habitual physical activity level distinguish amount of weight loss during energy restriction?
  2. How does exercise training affect energy expenditure during weight loss?
  3. Which factors predict changes in fat mass during long-term aerobic exercise training?
  4. Are there actually two types of obesity?
  5. Can concurrent training on an aquatic treadmill actually increase hypertrophy?
  6. Does exogenous insulin increase muscle protein synthesis rate?
  7. Is the Hippo signaling pathway important in muscular hypertrophy?
  8. Is the TGF-β signaling pathway important for muscular adaptations?
  9. How do PNF, static stretch, and isometric contractions affect flexibility?
  10. Can a long-term stretching program increase muscle strength in the elderly?
  11. Does stretching between resistance-training sets reduce the number of repetitions performed?
  12. Does 500ml of chocolate milk daily increase muscle gains during resistance training?
  13. Is soy or dairy protein better for increasing muscle gains during resistance training?
  14. What happens to energy expenditure when we overeat protein?
  15. Are higher-protein diets associated with lower waist circumference?


Physical therapy & rehabilitation

  1. Does foam rolling in different planes affect increases in flexibility?
  2. Does manual therapy have analgesic effects?
  3. How might the endothelin system be involved in chronic pain?
  4. Is pain catastrophizing a risk factor for chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty?
  5. Is central sensitization a key factor of shoulder pain?
  6. Is walking exercise effective for chronic musculoskeletal pain?
  7. Can physical activity help reduce fear avoidance and alleviate chronic non-specific pain?
  8. Is lumbar lordosis related to low back pain development during prolonged standing?
  9. Can stretching or strengthening exercises help patients with low back pain?
  10. Are individualized low-load exercises better than deadlifts for patients with low back pain?
  11. Which dorsiflexion mobilization technique is best for chronic ankle instability?



February Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Can battling ropes be used to develop aerobic fitness?
  2. Is volume-based overload in plyometric training effective?
  3. Is resisted sprint training better than traditional sprint training in trained athletes?
  4. Does the bilateral force deficit affect volume during resistance training?
  5. Do vertical and horizontal plyometric training programs lead to different results?
  6. How does resistance training affect repeated sprint performance in athletes?
  7. Does hamstring-specific resistance training improve sprint ability in soccer athletes?
  8. Can kettlebells be used to develop aerobic fitness?
  9. Does medicine ball training improve throwing velocity in handball athletes?
  10. How do strength and size change over time in American Football players?
  11. Is volume-matched rest-pause superior to conventional resistance training?
  12. Do high loads lead to greater hypertrophy than low loads?

Battle Ropes

Biomechanics & Motor Control

  1. Can hip flexor static stretching improve vertical jump height?
  2. Does blood flow restriction training cause greater reductions in tissue oxygenation?
  3. Can applying blood flow restriction earlier cause greater metabolic stress?
  4. How does trunk lean affect hamstring length changes during sprinting?
  5. How does load alter joint angle movements during the Good Morning exercise?
  6. Is augmented feedback better than either external or internal focus of attention?
  7. Does workload affect regional muscle activity in the rectus femoris during pedaling?
  8. What is the main role of the patella?
  9. How does height and stability affect shoulder muscle activity during push-ups?
  10. Are low back loads higher in the low bar or high bar squat?
  11. Can tensiomyography be used to differentiate between power and endurance athletes?
  12. Is the PAP effect observed in involuntary twitch responses?
  13. Can the phenomenon of static tension be explained by titin?


Anatomy, Physiology & Nutrition

  1. Do anabolic steroids affect calcineurin-NFAT signaling?
  2. Does contraction mode affect satellite cell activity during resistance training?
  3. What is the role of satellite cells in hypertrophy?
  4. What determines myonuclear domain size?
  5. Is the satellite cell response to training fiber-type specific?
  6. Do different relative loads cause different anabolic signaling responses?
  7. Is metabolic stress the primary factor driving hypertrophy during hypoxic training?
  8. Does matrix metalloproteinase-2 plays a role in hypertrophy?
  9. What is the role of myostatin in anabolic signaling?
  10. What is the role of the late endosome and lysosome in mTOR signaling?
  11. How does exercise intensity affect appetite in obese individuals?
  12. Are there differences in the effects of weight loss interventions between men and women?
  13. Does self-weighing help weight management?
  14. Is resistance training useful for preventing increases in waist circumference?
  15. Is soft drink consumption associated with increasing waist circumference?


Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation

  1. Can FMS score predict physical performance in team sport athletes?
  2. Can an FMS-based corrective exercise program alter FMS scores in athletes?
  3. Which injury risk factors, screens and preventative strategies are useful in soccer?
  4. Can self-myofascial release affect HRV in patients with myofascial pain syndrome?
  5. Can self-myofascial release on the plantar fascia affect sit-and-reach distance?
  6. Does myofascial release affect muscle stiffness?
  7. Which clinical tests can be used to diagnose lumbar spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis?
  8. Does kinesiology tape facilitate muscle performance compared to a placebo?
  9. How does loading affect vivo tendon properties?
  10. Is participation in certain sports associated with knee osteoarthritis?


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