Category Archives: Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

June Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Is training a muscle 1 day or 3 days per week better for resistance-trained males?
  2. Is training under hypoxic conditions better for hypertrophy and strength?
  3. Can BFR training improve strength and size in athletes?
  4. Do people prefer to perform resistance training at imposed or self-selected loads?
  5. Can tensiomyography differentiate between different types of workout?
  6. Is force production symmetry similar in different tests?
  7. What is the best type of training for improving sprinting ability in amateur athletes?
  8. Can kettlebells improve strength, power, and endurance?
  9. Can an HIIT program using kettlebells and battle ropes improve body composition?
  10. What types of warm-up are best for improving jumping performance?
  11. What types of warm-up are best for improving throwing performance?
  12. Does breaking up static stretching into 10-second repetitions alter its effects on sprinting?

Marianne Kane Fass

Biomechanics & motor control

  1. Can adding elastic bands to the deadlift increase rate of force development?
  2. How do lifting straps affect the performance of the deadlift?
  3. Are the hamstrings less important than the gluteus maximus during back squats?
  4. How does altering load and speed affect energy expenditure during squats?
  5. Which is the limiting joint during a failed squat?
  6. How does spine flexion and erector spinae strength affect squat jump height?
  7. How does hamstring muscle activity alter across multiple sets of Nordic hamstring curls?
  8. What are the characteristics of faster athletes in tests of multidirectional agility?
  9. Does residual force enhancement occur in vivo in humans?
  10. How do joint angles and muscle activity alter when habitually shod runners run barefoot?
  11. How does the starting degree of hip flexion affect muscle activity in the prone hip extension?
  12. How do pelvic position and vibration frequency affect muscle activity during quiet standing?

Joey Percia & Andrew Serrano

Anatomy, Physiology & Nutrition

  1. Is autophagy adaptation associated with changes in muscle fiber type?
  2. Do capillary adaptions occur faster in hypertensive patients?
  3. How does resistance exercise timing affect your sleep?
  4. What cardiac remodeling occurs after exercise?
  5. Does caloric restriction increase gut permeability?
  6. Can interval training help regulate appetite?
  7. Does caloric restriction reduce the adaptions to resistance training in the obese elderly?
  8. Does oxytocin reduce caloric intake in men?
  9. Can creatine supplementation improve squat and leg press performance?
  10. Is tendon cross-sectional area associated with muscle volume?
  11. Can anabolic steroids enhance hypertrophy from resistance training in older women?
  12. How does anabolic steroid usage affect heart rate, blood pressure and muscle damage?
  13. What macronutrient ratios do competitive bodybuilders eat?
  14. What are the typical results of training for a natural bodybuilding contest?

Eric Helms

Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation

  1. Can instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization improve flexibility?
  2. Can foam rolling plus static stretching improve flexibility more than foam rolling alone?
  3. Do novice runners get injured more often than recreational runners?
  4. Are internal or external cues better during ACL injury rehabilitation?
  5. Which hamstring muscle is most frequently injured and where?
  6. Do platelet-rich plasma injections after hamstring strain reduce the risk of re-injury?
  7. Are joint angle movements different in athletes with previous hamstring injury?
  8. Can a step-wise physical therapy program help patients with patellofemoral pain?
  9. Does hip muscle strengthening help patients with patellofemoral pain?
  10. How common is intervertebral disc degeneration in the Vietnamese?
  11. Can breathing techniques increase hip flexion range of motion?
  12. Does long-term stretching cause changes in the viscoelastic stress response?
Goblet squat

Diana Lugo

May Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Are single-joint exercises necessary for maximizing strength and size in trained individuals?
  2. Are heavy loads better than light loads for strength and size in trained individuals?
  3. Is repetition failure necessary for increasing strength and size?
  4. Which type of periodization is better: block or weekly undulating?
  5. Is variable or constant-load resistance better for strength and size gains?
  6. How can tapers be best structured to maximize muscular strength?
  7. How does crunch exercise frequency affect abdominal muscle endurance?
  8. Is isometric or dynamic training better for improving core stiffness?
  9. How does inter-set antagonist static stretching affect number of reps performed?
  10. Does limited hamstring flexibility affect athletic ability?
  11. Which is better for pre-season soccer training: half squats or jump squats?
  12. What is the optimum jump squat velocity for strength and speed gains?
  13. Can sport-specific training increase throwing velocity in throwing athletes?
  14. Is peripheral heart action training a viable alternative to HIIT?


Biomechanics & motor control

  1. Which muscles drive track sprinters out of the blocks?
  2. What physical performance tests are closely related to 100m track sprint performance?
  3. Why is the biceps femoris muscle most commonly injured?
  4. How do knee wraps affect the contribution of different muscles to the back squat?
  5. Which joints require greater flexibility in order to increase squat depth?
  6. How does instability affect the contribution of different muscles to the back squat?
  7. Does isometric training at different muscle lengths lead to differences in strength gains?
  8. Does regional hypertrophy differ with difference in relative load?
  9. How does bench angle alter upper body muscle activity during the bench press?
  10. Are there differences in the EMG-force relationship between trained and untrained males?
  11. Do single-joint exercises take longer to recover from than multi-joint exercises?
  12. Do cues affect drop jump performance?
  13. Do weightlifters and short-track speed skaters jump in different ways?
  14. Can muscle fascicle length changes explain differences in DOMS?


Anatomy, Physiology & Nutrition

  1. Can extracellular matrix remodeling explain differences in DOMS?
  2. How important are central mechanisms for recovery?
  3. Does mental fatigue affect maximal anaerobic exercise performance?
  4. Is a high-protein or a moderate-protein diet better during dieting for trained individuals?
  5. Does endurance training affect peak fat oxidation irrespective of weight loss?
  6. Can neuromuscular electrical stimulation improve recovery?
  7. Is HIIT better than moderate exercise for improving vascular function?
  8. Does post-exercise cold application reduce adaptations to training?


Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation

  1. Can the Nordic hamstring exercise reduce hamstring injuries?
  2. Is low eccentric hamstring strength a risk factor for hamstring injuries?
  3. Is neurodynamic sliding better than stretching for improving hamstring flexibility?
  4. Is low-frequency electrical stimulation beneficial for improving hamstring flexibility?
  5. Are neural sliders and neural tensioners beneficial for improving hamstring flexibility?
  6. Are Achilles tendons back to normal, 2 years after surgical repair?
  7. How do tendons adapt in response to mechanical loading?
  8. What interventions can be used to prevent tendinopathy?
  9. Can core stability training alter landing movement patterns?
  10. Can core strength training improve chronic low back pain?
  11. Can movement-specific exercise alter movement patterns?
  12. How can physical therapy best reduce central sensitization pain in osteoarthritis?
  13. Is talocrural joint mobilization useful for improving ankle dorsiflexion?
  14. Could loss of range of motion of the hip joint be causing sports hernia?


April Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. Can adding one set of low-load exercise to a standard workout increase hypertrophy?
  2. Can low-volume resistance training protect against DOMS from subsequent high-volume training?
  3. Does BFR training enhance gains from low-load resistance training?
  4. What are the metabolic, neuromuscular and hormonal effects of BFR training?
  5. Do all elderly people gain either strength or size from resistance training?
  6. Do oral contraceptives affect recovery from eccentric resistance training?
  7. Does eccentric resistance training enhance rate of force development?
  8. How does resistance training frequency affect gains in strength and size?
  9. How does resistance training frequency affect gains in strength and musculoskeletal pain?
  10. Does relative load affect acute post-workout changes in MHC isoform mRNA expression?
  11. Does bar speed affect changes in satellite cell content and myonuclear domain size?
  12. What is the rationale for including weightlifting pulling derivatives for athletes?


Biomechanics & Motor Control

  1. Are supine bridge curls an effective hamstrings exercise?
  2. Do muscle activation and posture each alter erector spinae fiber orientation?
  3. Does an abdominal drawing-in maneuver in prone hip extension alter gluteus maximus EMG activity?
  4. Is muscular co-activation key for punching performance?
  5. Does sodium bicarbonate affect voluntary activation during blood flow restriction?
  6. How does countermovement depth affect maximum vertical jump height?
  7. Do strength and body composition predict agility performance in female basketball athletes?
  8. What anthropometric profile identifies successful powerlifters?


Anatomy, Physiology & Nutrition

  1. How do muscle protein synthesis rates differ between trained and untrained subjects?
  2. What is the relationship between the acute muscle protein synthesis rates and hypertrophy?
  3. Can we conclude on the relationship between acute muscle protein synthetic response and changes in muscle mass?
  4. Can resistance training restore reductions in muscle protein synthesis when dieting?
  5. Are post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates associated with mTOR signaling?
  6. Does alcohol consumption reduce muscle protein synthesis?
  7. What mediates intracellular amino acids signaling to mTORC1 activity?
  8. What is the muscle fiber type of a champion sprint runner?
  9. Is there a causal relationship between physical activity and glucose homeostasis?
  10. Does pre-exercise caffeine dose increase post-exercise energy expenditure?
  11. How common are performance-enhancing substances in sports?
  12. Why do athletes choose to use performance-enhancing substances?
  13. How much protein do obese older adults need during periods of weight loss?
  14. Is resistance training beneficial for treating obesity-related health issues?
  15. How are different bones optimized for loading?


Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation

  1. Can self-myofascial release increase flexibility of the lower extremity?
  2. Can foam rolling improve flexibility during a dynamic lunge?
  3. Should we reject the theory of myofascial trigger points?
  4. Should we reject the review asking whether we should reject the theory of myofascial trigger points?
  5. Should we call myofascial trigger points “soft tissue sore spots of an unknown origin”?
  6. Can FMS sum score predict injury risk in college athletes?
  7. Is FMS sum score associated with previous injury in a very large sample of adolescents?
  8. Is FMS sum score associated with athletic performance in elite young soccer players?
  9. Is the FMS sum score associated with risky movement behavior?
  10. Can exercise interventions prevent groin injuries in sports?
  11. What are the risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes?
  12. Does asymmetry in lower body force production occur after hamstring injury?
  13. Is hip extension ROM reduced in individuals with chronic low back pain?
  14. Are specific exercise programs better than general exercise for low back pain?
  15. Is physiotherapy better than general exercise for low back pain?

foam roll

March Strength & Conditioning Research Questions

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Strength & Conditioning, Power and Hypertrophy

  1. How long does it take to recover from a resistance-training workout?
  2. How does resistance-training frequency affect strength gains?
  3. Which type of resistance-training periodization is best for rugby players?
  4. How does bar speed (repetition duration) in resistance training affect hypertrophy?
  5. Is BFR superior to standard resistance-training when taken to similar levels of fatigue?
  6. Can plyometrics produce a postactivation potentiation effect for sprint running?
  7. How can postactivation potentiation be used for training rugby players?
  8. Does maximum isometric mid-thigh pull strength predict jumping ability?
  9. Is long-term training using postactivation potentiation techniques effective?
  10. Are vertical and horizontal jumping ability predictive of 100m sprint running times?
  11. Can plyometric training improve neural drive?
  12. Can plyometric training improve sprint running and jumping ability in track athletes?
  13. How do strength coaches incorporate strongman implements into programs?

broad jump

Biomechanics & motor control

  1. How does the lift phase of the farmers walk differ from the deadlift?
  2. How does relative load affect patellofemoral loads in the back squat?
  3. How does muscle activity differ between front and back squats?
  4. How strongly is horizontal force correlated with performance in world-class sprinters?
  5. What factors affect iliotibial band hardness?
  6. Is the postactivation potentiation effect caused by increased neural drive?
  7. How do acromiohumeral distance and scapular position change with fatigue?
  8. Do the gluteus medius and minimus activity have very different functions?
  9. How does hip joint position affect muscle activity in the prone hip extension in knee flexion?
  10. How does relative load affect muscle activity during the deadlift?
  11. Is the glute machine effective for training the gluteus maximus?

farmer carry

Anatomy, physiology & nutrition

  1. Can habitual physical activity level distinguish amount of weight loss during energy restriction?
  2. How does exercise training affect energy expenditure during weight loss?
  3. Which factors predict changes in fat mass during long-term aerobic exercise training?
  4. Are there actually two types of obesity?
  5. Can concurrent training on an aquatic treadmill actually increase hypertrophy?
  6. Does exogenous insulin increase muscle protein synthesis rate?
  7. Is the Hippo signaling pathway important in muscular hypertrophy?
  8. Is the TGF-β signaling pathway important for muscular adaptations?
  9. How do PNF, static stretch, and isometric contractions affect flexibility?
  10. Can a long-term stretching program increase muscle strength in the elderly?
  11. Does stretching between resistance-training sets reduce the number of repetitions performed?
  12. Does 500ml of chocolate milk daily increase muscle gains during resistance training?
  13. Is soy or dairy protein better for increasing muscle gains during resistance training?
  14. What happens to energy expenditure when we overeat protein?
  15. Are higher-protein diets associated with lower waist circumference?


Physical therapy & rehabilitation

  1. Does foam rolling in different planes affect increases in flexibility?
  2. Does manual therapy have analgesic effects?
  3. How might the endothelin system be involved in chronic pain?
  4. Is pain catastrophizing a risk factor for chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty?
  5. Is central sensitization a key factor of shoulder pain?
  6. Is walking exercise effective for chronic musculoskeletal pain?
  7. Can physical activity help reduce fear avoidance and alleviate chronic non-specific pain?
  8. Is lumbar lordosis related to low back pain development during prolonged standing?
  9. Can stretching or strengthening exercises help patients with low back pain?
  10. Are individualized low-load exercises better than deadlifts for patients with low back pain?
  11. Which dorsiflexion mobilization technique is best for chronic ankle instability?