Category Archives: Products

Hip Thruster Update

Hi fitness friends!

It’s been just over a year since I launched the Hip Thruster unit, so I felt that an update was in order. Originally, I assumed that Hip Thrusters would mostly be purchased by women seeking better butts from their own homes, but there are now Hip Thruster units around the world in gyms ranging from dingy garages to pro sports team training facilities. Don’t get me wrong, I still think that Hip Thruster’s greatest application is in helping women build their backsides due to the possibility of daily band hip thrusts, but I also believe that every pro sports team should have several Hip Thrusters for ease of hip thrusting with the athletes (assuming space permits).

Hip Thruster

Thrusting like a maniac!

Strong glutes are imperative in sports due to their contribution to jumping, cutting, sprinting, and twisting/turning/throwing/swinging/striking. However, the glutes don’t just contribute to performance, they also help prevent injuries from occurring since they protect the spine, the anterior hips, the knees, and the hamstrings. Personally, I believe that stronger glutes will allow the hamstrings to better express themselves during sprinting, thus creating some synergy for speed. Several USA-based professional teams have already purchased units in sports ranging from baseball, to basketball, to football, to hockey, and pro teams in other countries have purchased the Hip Thruster as well.

We now have a USA-based company and a UK-based Hip Thruster company. Recently, there has been a lot happening at Hip Thruster, including great testimonials from pro rugby teams in Europe, new shipping arrangements to Alaska and Hawaii, slashed shipping prices outside the USA, and new team members!

Hip Thruster

Winning Rugby Players use Hip Thrusters

Most strength coaches would agree that stronger glutes mean faster sprinting speeds, which is important in professional team sports such as rugby. I’m delighted to see the Northampton Saints using the Hip Thruster. They were the winners of the rugby 2013-14 Aviva Premiership in the UK. Their lead strength coach, Marc Finney (@Marc_Finney) definitely knows how to build fast, strong and capable rugby players!

Northampton Saints training on a Hip Thruster

Northampton Saints rugby team in pre-season training making the Hip Thruster look small!

Here’s what Marc had to say about the units:

“The hip thrust is an important exercise we use for developing hip extension strength, and the Hip Thruster units have made the exercise safer and easier to perform. We especially like the additional band attachments, which allow for accommodated resistance throughout the full range of movement.

The quality of the units is impressive. They are sturdy, easily transportable and large enough to fit even our biggest team members. Everyone finds them more comfortable than our previous set up.

As S&C Coaches we need to have a large repertoire of exercises that can be modified and manipulated to meet the needs of our athletes. For our load compromised athletes that have a history of knee, joint or back issues the Hip Thrust has been a key exercise for our lower body strength development.

Many traditional lower body strength exercises place significant axial loading throughout the body. With the Hip Thruster units we have been able to make significant lower body strength gains without the joint stress and loads usually associated with traditional heavy compound movements.

Our bigger athletes, particularly our props, have been able to load the Hip Thruster up, including the additional bands, to great effect. Ultimately, the units enable us to maximise our glute training and make substantial strength gains without compromising our athletes’ backs and joints.” – Marc Finney, Lead Strength Coach, Northampton Saints

As well as the Northampton Saints, Hip Thruster units are also being used by Ulster Rugby in Northern Ireland and the Genoa CFC football team in Italy.

“Our team really enjoy training on our new Hip Thruster units … It’s made a big difference to our hip thrusts in training. They give us the support we need to build stronger glutes for faster sprinting!” – Genoa CFC

Your team can get the same benefits as these pro teams by ordering a unit today. For delivery to the USA click HERE. For any other location around the world, click HERE.

Genoa CFC training on a Hip Thruster unit

Genoa CFC benefitting from band resisted hip thrusts

Easier Shipping to Alaska and Hawaii!

I’m excited to announce that we can now ship to Alaska and Hawaii from the USA. If you live in Alaska or Hawaii, you can get your unit HERE.

Hip Thruster

New CEO for Hip Thruster Rest of World!

Now that the Hip Thruster business has grown outside the USA, I’ve brought someone else in to run it. From September 1st of this year, Anna-Maria has taken over as the CEO of Hip Thruster Rest of World.

It’s not a big change. Anna-Maria was already managing the customer service, stock management, and finance functions for the whole Hip Thruster business. As of now, though, I’m letting her call the shots on how we put Hip Thrusters in gyms outside the USA.

You can follow Anna-Maria on Twitter (@HipThrusterCEO).

Up to 55% off Shipping Prices!

Anna-Maria has hit the ground running.

Shipping costs were a real problem for our customers living outside the USA. So from today she has slashed the cost of shipping outside the UK. For some countries, by as much as 55%!

If the previously steep cost of shipping was stopping you from investing in your Hip Thruster, check out our new shipping prices HERE.

Shipping costs for new countries are being added as we receive enquiries. If you want a unit and your country is not listed, please tell us.

Please Share Photos and Videos with the Hip Thruster Team

People often tag me when they post up their hip thrust videos. Unfortunately, the team doesn’t have access to my Facebook page and sometimes I’m too busy to relay the message to them.

Since we all like to see the Hip Thruster units being used, please also tweet @HipThrusterCEO or message the Hip Thruster Facebook page. Thanks!

Hip Thruster Facebook

 

New and improved Strength & Conditioning Research Free Newsletter

Chris and I launched our monthly research review service back in February 2012. Since then, we’ve published 21 editions and we are rapidly approaching the start of our third year in existence!

From the beginning, we have tried to provide our subscribers with only the very best reviews of the most up-to-date research. This is because we believe that sports science is crucially important for helping you and your clients or athletes achieve the best possible results.

However, we know that some people aren’t sure whether reading reviews of up to 50 of the latest sports science studies is something for them. We’ve heard some people say that the technical jargon is too daunting, others find it hard to implement the information into their training practices, and others struggle to find the time to read it all, every month.

We think that everyone can overcome those problems. So if you’re not yet a subscriber, we’d like the opportunity to convince you that it is worth persevering. Therefore, we’re re-launching our Strength and Conditioning Research free newsletter.

From now on, the free newsletter will include a single study review of a recent, relevant study every month. This study will be carefully picked to be as relevant and as practically useful for you as possible.

You won’t find that study review anywhere else. It’s not going to be included in the monthly review service and it’s not going to be posted on the blog. It’s only going to you, as a subscriber to the free newsletter. It’s our opportunity to convince you that sports science can help you improve the results you achieve for you and for your athletes or clients.

To give you an example of what kind of review we will be publishing in our free newsletter, here’s a recent study about the benefits of training using battling ropes, that we haven’t included in our monthly review service, even though it came out only recently.

***

The study: Metabolic Cost of Rope Training, by Fountaine and Schmidt, in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2013

What did the researchers do?

New training modalities arise constantly. In recent years, the mainstream fitness industry has been introduced to kettlebells, sandbags, and body-weight suspension training devices, among other things.

Most recently, fitness professionals have begun to make use of large ropes (9 – 15m in length and 3 – 5cm in diameter), sometimes called either battle ropes, battling ropes, or undulation training. Such training involves looping the rope or pair of ropes around a fixed object and creating a series of waves for a set interval, usually between 10 – 30 seconds.

Rope training has been recommended as a low-impact, upper-body, metabolic workout. This is an exciting proposition, as low-impact training is always attractive and there are few easy methods of performing cardiovascular training using only the upper body, outside of arm cycle ergometers.  However, research has yet to substantiate the benefits…

BattleRope1

What did the researchers do?

The researchers investigated the acute cardiovascular and metabolic effects of a 10-minute bout of rope training, as performed by 11 physically active individuals (5 males and 6 females). The rope training workout that they used comprised 10 sets, each being 1-minute long. Each set was made up of 15-second work intervals of vertical, double-arm rope undulations and 45-seconds of passive rest.

The rope used was made of nylon and was 15.24m long, weighed 16.33kg and 3.81cm in diameter. Since the rope was anchored at the base of a post, the subjects held only 7.62m of rope in each hand.

While the subjects performed the workout, the researchers measured heart rate, lactate, resting oxygen uptake, exercise oxygen uptake, and excess post- exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). EPOC was measured constantly post-exercise until two consecutive measurements were within ± 5% of resting oxygen uptake.

***

What happened?

The researchers reported that the subjects performed an average of 25 ± 4 rope undulations during each 15-second work interval. The chart below shows that average and peak heart rates during the workout reached 163 ± 11 and 178 ± 11 bpm, respectively, or 84 and 91% of age-predicted heart-rate maximum.

Battling ropesIn a kettlebell swing workout also lasting 10 minutes, albeit with 35-second work intervals and 25-second rest intervals, the average heart rate reached was 180 ± 12bpm, or 90% of age-predicted heart-rate maximum (see Hulsey, 2012). The slightly higher heart rate reached is likely a result of the higher work-to-rest ratio in that study.

***

What did the researchers conclude?

The researchers concluded that a 10-minute workout of rope training as used in this study involves very high average and peak heart rates. They note that the cardiovascular and metabolic demands of this type of rope training would be classified by the ACSM as vigorous-intensity exercise (Garber, 2012).

***

What were the limitations?

The study was limited in several ways, as follows:

  1. The study was an acute investigation and it is unclear exactly what type of muscular, cardiovascular or body composition adaptations such training may lead to.
  2. The study only involved a small number of physically active young adults and different results might be observed in other populations.
  3. Since no standard exists for the exact thickness and length of the rope used in this type of training, the researchers picked an apparently suitable length and diameter. However, training with ropes of differing diameter and length may result in different responses.
  4. The researchers did not objectively determine maximum heart rate or VO2-max and therefore the results were compared to predicted heart-rate maximum, which involves a potential for error.

lightning-ropes-595-1

What are the practical applications?

Rope training provides a vigorous-intensity cardiovascular and metabolic workout, as demonstrated by the high average and peak heart rates. It may therefore be useful as an alternative conditioning method for athletes or personal training clients.

***

Sign up to the free newsletter here

If you’d like a study review like this delivered every month into your inbox, please subscribe to the free Strength & Conditioning Research newsletter using the sign-up form below. We promise only to send you two emails per month, one with the free study review and one with a short preview of the monthly research review service.








New and improved newsletter

Jumping Biomechanics & Research

Last February, Chris and I released our SPRINTING product which summarized the best research in sprinting. Now, we’re releasing our JUMPING product to accompany the sprint research and further allow athletes and coaches to improve their understanding and performance. 

verticaljump

Jumping is one of the most important athletic skills for team sports athletes and is a key element of rugby, soccer and basketball. The NFL implements a test battery at its annual combine that includes both vertical and horizontal jumps. Track & Field has a number of jumping events dedicated to it, including the long jump, high jump and triple jump.

broad jump

An athlete who can’t jump both high and far is not going to be successful in any of these sports. So how can strength and conditioning coaches help their athletes jump higher and further?

Buy The Optimal Athlete: Jumping NOW!

Jumping - large book

Here are the questions we answer in our product:

Warm ups and potentiation

  1. Do active, passive and dynamic stretches in a warm-up reduce vertical jump performance acutely?
  2. Can antagonist stretching improve jump height and peak knee extension torque?
  3. What effect do the different elements of warm-ups each have on jump performance?
  4. What is the effect of different warm-up protocols on jump performance in football players?
  5. How does the intensity of static and dynamic stretching protocols affect agility, sprinting, and jumping performance?
  6. How do rest periods and intensity affect the post-activation potentiation effect?
  7. How do warm-up protocols affect sprint and jump performance?
  8. Can elastic resistance during the eccentric phase of a countermovement jump enhance performance?
  9. Do heavy half and quarter heavy squats have a post-activation potentiation effect on vertical jumping?
  10. Does repeated jumping on an elastic surface alter leg stiffness immediately afterwards?
  11. Can the snatch pull have a post-activation potentiation effect on vertical jump performance?
  12. How does the load of back squats as a conditioning contraction affect vertical jump performance?
  13. Can moderately-loaded, concentric-only quarter squats create a post-activation potentiation effect on subsequent vertical jumps?
  14. Do vertical conditioning contractions lead to similar post-activation potentiation effects in subsequent vertical and horizontal movements?
  15. Do volume-matched low, medium and high load squat protocols lead to similar post-activation potentiation effects in subsequent vertical and horizontal movements?
  16. Do static stretching and dynamic stretching have similar effects on subsequent vertical jumping performance?
  17. How does depth affect squat jump performance?

Training studies

  1. Are complex or compound training programs better for improving vertical jump performance?
  2. Are concentric-only jump squats better than concentric-eccentric jump squats for improving vertical jump performance?
  3. Is Olympic weightlifting better than traditional resistance training for improving vertical jump in collegiate football players?
  4. Is Olympic weightlifting better than powerlifting for improving vertical jump in high-school football players?
  5. Is the VertiMax useful for improving vertical jump performance?
  6. Are un-weighted plyometrics or weighted plyometrics better for improving vertical jump in basketball players?
  7. Can a plyometrics program improve sprint running performance?
  8. Do isometric exercises change tendon stiffness and thereby reduce countermovement jump performance?
  9. Do unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises have different effects on jumping ability?
  10. Does heavy load training lead to different jumping ability gains than light load training?
  11. Is Olympic weightlifting better than kettlebell training for improving vertical jump?
  12. Do heavy load, light load and plyometric training methods lead to different jumping ability gains?
  13. Can incline plyometrics can the optimal length of the calf muscles and improve vertical jump height?
  14. Are quarter squats better or worse than parallel squats for improving jumping performance?
  15. Which type of training improves vertical jump most in professional rugby players: assisted, resisted, or free countermovement jumps?
  16. Is low, moderate or high volume plyometric best for jumping and sprinting performance gains?
  17. Does training with light loads improve drop jump performance more than training with heavy loads?
  18. Do Olympic weightlifting and machined-based training both cause increased knee muscle-coactivation?
  19. Can plyometric and isometric training alter tendon properties and rate of force development?
  20. Is Olympic weightlifting better than plyometrics for improving vertical jump in recreationally-trained subjects?
  21. Does hamstring stretching affect sprinting or jumping performance?
  22. Can resistance training alter hip and knee joint angles in drop landings?
  23. Which is best for improving vertical jump: squat, plyometric or squat-plyometric training?
  24. Do unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training programs improve unilateral and bilateral vertical jump similarly?
  25. How do plyometric, Olympic weightlifting, and combined programs affect the biomechanics of the vertical jump?

Biomechanics, modeling, attentional focus, and reviews

  1. Is jumping performance affected by whether the athlete jumps with a hip-dominant or a knee-dominant technique?
  2. Which exercise produces EMG activity of the lower body muscles that is most similar to the countermovement jump – the squat or deadlift?
  3. Can athletes jump half as high with one-leg as they can on two-legs?
  4. What do we know about training for jumping with a run-up?
  5. Do maximal jumps from different starting postures reach a similar height?
  6. How do the biomechanics of drop jumps from different heights differ?
  7. How are the joint angles of maximal and submaximal vertical jumps different?
  8. Does muscle activity follow a proximal to distal pattern in vertical jumping?
  9. Does plyometric training improve vertical jump height performance?
  10. Can elite sprinters jump higher than sub-elite sprinters?
  11. How does the biomechanics of horizontal and vertical jumps differ?
  12. Does performance of hang power clean differentiate jumping, sprinting, and changing of direction?
  13. Does plyometric training improve vertical jump height?
  14. How does dropping height affect the biomechanics of drop jumping?
  15. Is drop jumping effective as a training method for jumping ability?
  16. Does the time it takes to develop muscle stimulation affect rate of force development during vertical jumping?
  17. Can external attentional focus improve performance in the standing long jump?
  18. What effect does forward trunk inclination have on joint powers during vertical jumping?
  19. Are hang cleans or squats better for post-activation potentiation for vertical jumps?
  20. Do hex-bar deadlift jumps produce a greater power output than jump squats?
  21. Does muscle strengthening increase vertical jump height?
  22. What is the bilateral deficit in vertical jumping?
  23. What biomechanical factor best predicts vertical jump performance?
  24. How significant is tendon elasticity during ankle joint movements?
  25. Does external focus increase vertical jump height and reduce EMG activity?
  26. What is the influence of the knee extensor tendons on vertical jump performance?
  27. How does dorsiflexion affect vertical jump performance?
  28. How do preactivity and eccentric muscle activity affect vertical jump performance?
  29. How does training background affect jumping height?
  30. Is the effect of a countermovement on jump height due to active state development?
  31. Is knee stiffness a major determinant of leg stiffness during maximal hopping?
  32. What is the maximum dynamic output hypothesis?
  33. How does leg stiffness increase with increasing hopping frequency?
  34. Does elastic energy stored during pre-stretch explain the difference in height between a countermovement and a squat jump?
  35. How large are peak vertical ground reaction forces during landing from a jump?
  36. What is the difference between horizontal and vertical jumps?
  37. In what sequence are the leg muscles activated during vertical jumping?
  38. Does foot inclination affect vertical jump performance?
  39. What is the optimal loading for maximizing power output in vertical jumps?
  40. Which bilateral plyometric exercises lead to the greatest stresses?
  41. Can plyometric intensity be quantified using eccentric rate of force development and knee joint reaction forces?
  42. Can net relative vertical impulse predict jump height in jump squats?
  43. Is hopping modulated to be as efficient as possible?
  44. Does the storage of elastic energy explain the difference in jump heights between counter-movement and squat jumps?
  45. Is the optimal load for power output during jump squats identical in both trained and untrained subjects?
  46. Are the lower body muscles similarly involved in sub-maximal and maximal jumps?
  47. How does an appreciation of elastic energy storage affect strength and conditioning practices?
  48. How much does rate of force development affect vertical jump performance?
  49. Does gaining bodyweight automatically mean a reduction in vertical jump performance?
  50. Why do people jump the way they do?

Arm-swing

  1. How does arm swing improve jumping performance?
  2. By how much does arm swing improve jumping performance?
  3. Are vertical ground reaction forces similar in jumps with and without arm swing?
  4. How does arm motion enhance vertical jump performance?
  5. How does arm swing increase vertical jump performance?

Sprinting & jumping relationships

  1. Can countermovement jump height predict sprint running performance?
  2. Which jump test best predict sprint running performance in the acceleration phase?
  3. Can horizontal jumping performance predict long distance running ability?
  4. Is drop jump performance correlated with sprinting ability in track sprinters?
  5. What is the relationship between acceleration in vertical jumps and sprint running performance during the acceleration phase?
  6. What is the relationship between jumping performances and sprint running performance during the maximum speed phase?
  7. Can the results of the jumping tests in the National Football League combine predict the results of the sprinting tests?
  8. Can half squat 1RM predict 5m sprint performance in soccer players?
  9. Which jump variables should be used to assess explosive leg muscle function?

Buy The Optimal Athlete: Jumping NOW!

Jumping - large book

Hip Extensor Training: Scientific Hypertrophy of the Posterior Chain

Five months ago, my colleague Chris Beardsley and I released Hip Extension Torque: The Scientific Guide to the Posterior Chain. Hip Extension Torque was very well received among lifters, athletes, coaches, physical therapists, sports scientists, and researchers, and it covered a ton of biomechanical material, mostly focusing on torque calculations (297 pages).

Since then, we’ve been working diligently on the companion to this product, and we finally completed it. Essentially, we reviewed every relevant gluteal EMG and hamstrings EMG study that we could get our hands on (probably over 300 in total). We are proud to announce the release of Hip Extension Training: Scientific Hypertrophy of the Posterior Chain. Hip Extension Training is 315 pages of charts, graphs, and images that will help you understand the workings of the gluteals and hamstrings.

HET2-image

This month, Hip Extension Training will be $39.95, after which it will increase to $49.95.

In Chapter 5, I’ve included data regarding my most recent EMG experiments which I’ve conducted on myself, my girlfriend Diana, and my colleagues Kellie Davis and Marianne Kane. Very intriguing information that sheds light on:

1. The best MVC positions for the glutes
2. How glute EMG is affected with heavier kettlebell swings
3. How posterior pelvic tilting affects glute activation
4. How altering body position affects glute activation during various movements
5. The best heavy isometric positions for glute EMG
6. The best heavy dynamic exercises for glute EMG

Click HERE for the link to buy now.

Below is the table of contents in case you’re interested.

1. What principal actions do the hamstrings perform?

1.Which are the hamstrings muscles?
2.What principal actions do the hamstrings perform?
3.What is the action of hip extension?
4.What is the action of knee flexion?
5.Which of the hamstrings perform each of these actions?

2. What is the anatomy and architecture of the hamstrings?

1.How can we subdivide the hamstrings muscles?
2.What are the origins and insertions of the hamstrings?
3.What is the muscular weight of each of the hamstrings?
4.What is the muscular volume of each of the hamstrings?
5.What is the muscle fiber type of the hamstrings?
6.What are the sizes and relative weights of the medial and lateral hamstrings?
7.What is the physiological cross-sectional area of the hamstrings?
8.What is the normalized fiber length of the hamstrings?
9.What is the pennation angle of the hamstrings?
10. What is the pennation arrangement of the hamstrings?
11.Why do the hamstrings have different architecture from each other?
12.Does the “hamstrings” part of the adductor magnus exist?
13.How does the muscle architecture of the hamstrings change with joint angle?
14.What is the architecture of the different regions of the hamstrings?
15.How can we summarize the anatomy of the hamstrings muscles?
16.How can we summarize how hamstrings anatomy affects training principles?

3. Why are hamstring length and flexibility important?

1.How can we increase the flexibility of the hamstrings?
2.What happens when we stretch the hamstrings?
3.How often do we need to stretch the hamstrings?
4.What happens when we perform eccentric exercise with the hamstrings?
5.How do stretching and eccentric exercise of the hamstrings differ?
6.Does the type of eccentric exercise of the hamstrings matter?
7.Does hamstring flexibility affect pelvic tilt when standing?

4. How do the hamstrings function during sprinting?

1.What is the pattern of hamstring muscle activity in running?
2.Does hamstring muscle activity differ during overground and treadmill running?
3.How does hamstrings activity change with increasing running speed?
4.How does hamstring activity change with increasing fatigue?
5.What is the pattern of hamstring activity in sprinting?
6.Does sprinting use both medial and lateral hamstrings equally?
7.Can gluteal strengthening reduce hamstring activation?

5. What do we know about hamstring injury?

1.What is the incidence of hamstring strain injury?
2.What is the incidence of recurrent hamstring strain injury?
3.What causes hamstring strain injury?
4.Are there two different causes of hamstring strain injury?
5.Which hamstring muscles are most frequently strained?
6.How might the architecture of the hamstrings influence their risk of strains?
7.How could changes in hamstring length during sprinting affect risk of strains?
8.How might the moment arm length of the hamstrings influence the risk of strains?
9.What do we know about the length of the hamstrings in running?
10.When are the hamstrings at greatest risk of injury during sprinting?
11.Is weakness correlated with increased risk of hamstring strain injury?
12.How can hamstring strain injury incidence be reduced?
13.What is the approach for graduating exercises during hamstring rehabilitation?

6. Which dynamometer positions produce the greatest hamstring EMG activity?

1.At what hip angle is hamstring activity highest and lowest?
2.At what knee angle is hamstring activity highest and lowest?
3.Which combined hip and knee movements lead to greatest activity?
4.How can we summarize the conditions that lead to maximum EMG activity?

7. Which exercises produce the greatest hamstring EMG activity?

1.Which are the best exercises for activating the hamstrings?
2.Are split squats better than back squats for activating the hamstrings?
3.Why is the back squat not a good exercise for the hamstrings?
4.Is the wide-stance back squat a better exercise for the hamstrings?
5.Does hamstrings activity increase with increasing load during squats?
6.Does squat depth affect the activity of the hamstrings?
7.Does how far the lifter “sits back” in a squat affect hamstrings activity?
8.Do lunges produce a high level of activity in the hamstrings?
9.Are kettlebell swings or strongman exercises good for the hamstrings?
10.Does hip flexion reduce hamstring activation during horizontal back extensions?
11.How does pelvic restraint affect hamstring activity?
12.Are the medial and lateral hamstrings activated by different exercises?
13.Which exercises preferentially recruit the medial and lateral hamstrings?
14.Does the leg curl activate medial and lateral hamstrings equally?
15.Why do eccentric leg curls preferentially recruit the semitendinosus?
16.Do step-up exercises activate the lateral more than the medial hamstrings?
17.Does the razor curl activate the medial more than the lateral hamstrings?
18.Are there differences in activity between the sumo and conventional deadlifts?
19.Does hip rotation angle affect medial-to-lateral hamstrings activation ratio?
20.Do exercises display different levels of activity at different joint angles?
21.How can we summarize the exercises that best activate the hamstrings?

8. Which exercises produce the greatest hamstring activity according to N=1?

1.N = 1, EMG activity of the Biceps Femoris
2.Summary of N = 1, EMG activity of the Biceps Femoris
3.Differences between research and N=1

9. What principles inform an optimal hamstring hypertrophy program?

1.What are the key points that influence hamstring hypertrophy?
2.How can we summarize how hamstrings anatomy affects training principles?
3.How can we summarize how dynamometer research affects training principles?
4.How can we summarize the exercises that best activate the hamstrings?
5.What features does a hamstring hypertrophy program have?

10. What is the anatomy and architecture of the gluteals?

1.Which muscles are the gluteal muscles?
2.What are the origins and insertions of the gluteals?
3.How is the human gluteus maximus different from that of other apes?
4.How did the human gluteals evolve to become so different?
5.How heavy are the gluteals in comparison with other leg muscles?
6.How large are the gluteals in comparison with other leg muscles?
7.How does gluteal muscle size differ between males and females?
8.How long are the gluteal muscle fibers in comparison with other leg muscles?
9.How pennate are the gluteal fibers in comparison with other leg muscles?
10.What is the predominant fiber type of the gluteals?
11.How do the moment arms of the gluteals compare to other hip muscles?
12.How do the moment arms of the gluteals change with hip flexion?
13.What is the architecture of the different regions of the gluteus maximus?
14.What is the architecture of the different regions of the gluteus medius?
15.How can we summarize how gluteal anatomy affects training principles?
16.What pathologies can arise because of gluteus maximus weakness?
17.What pathologies can arise because of gluteus medius weakness?

11. Which exercises produce the greatest gluteus medius EMG activity?

1.What do reviews say about the best exercises for activating the gluteus medius?
2.Which exercises create the greatest gluteus medius EMG activity?
3.Does knee valgus affect gluteus medius activity in single-leg actions?
4.Are there sex differences in gluteus medius activation during exercises?
5.Which step-up leads to the greatest gluteus medius EMG activity?
6.How do pelvic and hip angles affect gluteus medius EMG activity during clams?
7.Which exercises create the greatest gluteus medius EMG activity?
8.How is gluteus medius EMG activity related to PFPS?
9.Does sled dragging activate the gluteus medius more with heavier loads?
10.Does band walking activate the gluteus medius more with heavier loads?
11.Does loading cause greater activity of the gluteus medius in lateral movements?
12.In which leg is gluteal activity higher during lateral band walking?
13.Does band placement affect gluteus medius activity in band walks?
14.How do walking and running affect gluteus medius EMG activity?
15.How can the gluteus medius be activated with limited hip flexor involvement?
16.How can the gluteus medius be activated with limited TFL involvement?
17.Are the different regions of the gluteus medius activated by different exercises?
18.How can we summarize the exercises that best activate the gluteus medius?

12. What principles inform an optimal gluteus medius hypertrophy program?

1.What are the key points that influence gluteal hypertrophy?
2.How can we summarize how gluteus medius anatomy affects training principles?
3.What does resistance exercise research tell us about gluteus medius training?

13. Which joint angle positions produce the greatest gluteus maximus activity?

1.Does hip flexion angle affect gluteus maximus activity during hip extension?
2.Does hip abduction angle affect gluteus maximus activity during hip extension?
3.Does knee flexion angle affect gluteus maximus activity during hip extension?
4.Does knee extension reduce gluteus maximus activity during hip extension?
5.How does pelvic tilt angle affect gluteal activity?
6.How can we summarize how joint angle research affects training principles?

14. Which exercises produce the greatest gluteus maximus EMG activity?

1.What do reviewers say about the best exercises for activating the gluteus maximus?
2.Which type of step-up is best for gluteus maximus activation?
3.Does the step-up produce more gluteus maximus activity than the single-leg squat?
4.Does the lunge produce more gluteus maximus activity than the step-up?
5.Does elastic resistance activate the gluteus maximus similarly to dumbbells?
6.Does knee valgus affect gluteal activity in single-leg actions?
7.Which exercises create the greatest gluteus maximus EMG activity?
8.Does the clam really produce significant gluteus maximus activity?
9.How do pelvic and hip angles affect gluteus maximus EMG activity during clams?
10.How do gluteus maximus and quadriceps activity compare in the back squat?
11.Does stance width affect gluteus maximus activity in the back squat?
12.Does depth affect gluteus maximus activity in the back squat?
13.Does gluteal activity increase with increasing load during squats?
14.Does gluteal activity increase with increasing speed during squats?
15.Does how far the lifter “sits back” in a squat affect gluteal activity?
16.Does the split squat produce more gluteus maximus activity than the squat?
17.Is gluteal activity different during sumo and conventional deadlifts?
18.How does gluteus maximus activity alter with machine settings?
19.Does cadence affect gluteal activity when stair-stepping?
20.How does pelvic restraint affect gluteal activity?
21.Are there sex differences in gluteus maximus activation during exercises?
22.Are there sex differences in gluteus maximus activation during gait?
23.Does sled pulling activate the gluteals more with heavier loads?
24.Does band walking activate the gluteals more with heavier loads?
25.Do lateral movements activate the gluteals more with heavier loads?
26.In which leg is gluteal activity higher during lateral band walking?
27.Does band placement affect gluteus maximus activity in band walks?
28.How do the gluteals activate during asymmetric load lifts?
29.How does load affect gluteal activity during back extensions?
30.How does external rotation affect gluteal activity during back extensions?
31.Does abdominal activity during prone hip extension increase gluteal activity?
32.Is the activity of the gluteus maximus delayed during prone hip extension?
33.Do delayed onset times in gluteus maximus activation relate to injury?
34.Are there connections between gluteus maximus activity and injury?
35.How can we summarize the exercises that best activate the gluteus maximus?

15. Which exercises produce the greatest gluteus maximus activity according to N=1?

1.N = 1, EMG activity of the Gluteus Maximus (Bret)
2.N = 1, EMG activity of the Gluteus Maximus (Bret and Diana)
3.N = 1, EMG activity of the Gluteus Maximus (Kellie)
4.N = 1, EMG activity of the Gluteus Maximus (Marianne)
5.Differences between N=1 and research

16. What principles inform an optimal gluteus maximus hypertrophy program?

1.What are the key points that influence gluteal hypertrophy?
2.How can we summarize how gluteal anatomy affects training principles?
3.What does joint angle research tell us about gluteus maximus training?
4.What does resistance exercise research tell us about gluteus maximus training?
5.What does Bret’s (N=1) research tell us about gluteus maximus training?
6.So what features does a gluteus maximus hypertrophy program have?

17. Should we perform gluteal activation and cueing?

1.What research has been performed on external focus?
2.What research has been performed on internal focus?
3.Can internal cues affect gluteal activation during exercises?
4.Can gluteal activation affect vertical jump performance?
5.Can gluteal strengthening reduce hamstring activation?

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